Russia and European Union

The European Union and the Russia-Georgia Conflict - as of August 21, 2008.
By ESLaPorte
“World peace cannot be safeguarded without the making of creative efforts proportionate to the dangers which threaten it” – The Schuman Declaration (1).






 Introduction The region around Georgia has been simmering since the bloody conflicts of the early 1990’s, shortly after the break-up of the Soviet system. There Russian Federation had an agreement with the government of Georgia and the leadership of Abkhazia to maintain a peacekeeping and peace monitor mission. On the night of August 7, 2008 the Georgian military started a massive military operation to “gain constitutional control” over South Ossetia and its capital city, Tskhinvali (2).
According to Human Rights Watch:
“Violence has escalated in South Ossetia, a breakaway province of Georgia and one of the ‘frozen conflicts’ of the former Soviet Union. The conflict heated up dramatically in the early morning of August 8, 2008. Georgia declared that it intended to restore constitutional order and launched a large-scale military offensive. Russia sent additional troops to South Ossetia, saying they were reinforcements to Russian peacekeepers who are in the area to monitor a 1992 ceasefire between Georgian and South Ossetian forces” (3).
The sides were drawn, with America, Britain and East Europe’s militant Atlanticist corps on the Georgia side and Russia on the other, needing to defend its actions to stop the Georgia military offensive against South Ossetia. In the middle was, and to date still is, the European Union, which courageously refused to blame a side in the conflict. Instead, the French Presidency and Germany, took the lead in finding first a cease fire. European diplomacy is a smashing success, but winning the peace through diplomacy in especially the United Nations will be a long road. Europe needs to travel this long road without making Russia into a threatening enemy and walling Russia out of the process.
 "Old" Europe, or the grown-ups of Europe, thankfully are in charge, while "new" Europe, or the children of the European Union, Poland especially, and have attempted to force the European Union to blame Russia. What is noticeable here is that the positive and cooperative spirit that is embodied in the Community's historical documents, like the Schuman declaration, are being challenged by both Britain and Poland especially. If there is to be a lasting solution to this conflict - the European Union MUST maintain open channels and positive cooperation with Moscow. This conflict also highlights the need for the European Union to part ways with Washington and its provocative proclivities of picking and friends and enemies in a highly volatile world.

Georgia’s questionable “democratic” credentials. What must first be pointed out is that Georgia is not the “beacon of freedom” that the West and America is touting it to be. Media outlets have trouble becoming economically viable in Georgia. According to Freedom House, Georgia, which it rated as a “Partly Free” country has a problem with harassment and violence against especially journalists. A year ago (August 2007) Rustavi-2 staff staged a boycott and in July a TV show host resigned on the air to protest the Georgian government’s attempts to influence her reporting on the murder of a banking official. According to Freedom House the Partly Free country of Georgia:
“…remains particularly critical and intolerant of the media, leading to an overall decrease in media independence since the 2003 Rose Revolution (emphasis mine).
Separately, the Ministry of Defense continued its practice of banning critical journalists from public events. There were reports of harassment and violence against journalists, and a sense of impunity prevailed in the country, particularly with regard to crimes committed against journalists. Media freedom is legally guaranteed in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but the separatist authorities in both areas restricted media outlets and journalists” (4).
In November 2007, 50,000 Georgians, despite government roadblocks, took to the streets of Tbilisi to protest the Saakashvili regime's move away from democracy. Prior to the protests, Irakli Okruashvili, Saakashvili's former defense minister, was arrested and then and then freed on a multi-million euro bail after he retracted accusations of the Saakashvili regime's involvement in murder and corruption - was believed to have been forced on a plane to Germany to prevent him from leading the opposition protests. The excuse from the Saakashvili regime was that Okruashvili was seeking medical treatment (5).

  On November 7, 2007, the opposition TV station, Imedi TV, was violently closed by Saakashvili's police forces. The closing came at the height of the protests and after Saakashvili declared a state of emergency and banned protests. The police beat peaceful protesters and seriously injured opposition leader, Koba Davitashvili. The violent closing came during the on-air news broadcast in which a TV anchor gave an emotional "farewell speech." The day of the closing, the station aired a protest where the protestors demanded Saakashvili's resignation. Eventually, a court unfroze the Imedi's assets and the station was allowed to reopen in mid-December after European and international pressure on the Saakashvili regime (6). However, the pressure on the TV station still mounts, as a page on Imedi's website explains:
"We created 4 years of Imedi, but lately Imedi became the target of the political dirtiness, typical for the pre-election campaign in the country. We want to confirm, that all of us and our family members became the objects of pressure and blackmailing from the side of authorities during this one month and a half. During the last two days it was created the complete hysteria by the TV channels, controlled by the authorities, which causes the hysterical situation in which our journalists were to work and now there are no guarantees for leading the work safely.
After this we want to stand aside from the dirty political games, this is our protest against the government, which was doing its best to blackmail journalists, as well as against that misunderstanding, which is connected with the participation of the owner of the TV channel in the Presidential elections. The scandal around this topic placed all of us, journalists in the hardest situation. The only purpose we have, is to save the channel, as it is the most objective and free media-source. We completely understand our responsibility to the Georgian society" (7).
Still, the Americans still call Saakashvili’s Georgia a “democratic country” and the militant Atlanticists in Poland, the Baltic and Britain want to “stand with” this tyrannical regime that has clearly demonstrated a disrespect for the Western democratic value of the freedom of the press. Shame on those that “stand with” this regime, shame on the Bush administration, shame on the Baltic countries, SHAME ON YOU Lech Kaczynski and shame on David Miliband for his vigor in defending the Saakashvili regime's actions in South Ossetia (more about them down the page- and more about these shamelesss people in a later paper).

The Georgian aggression on South Ossetia. On the eve of August 7, 2008, the military forces of Georgia staged an invasion of the “break-away” province of South Ossetia. The attack on South Ossetia was massive and intended to take out “separatist-rebels” – but the action was intended to force South Ossetia back into Georgia. The attack was timed to start with the opening of the Olympics and a surprise attack on South Ossetia. Hundreds of civilians were killed in this assault, as well as 15 Russian peacekeepers, who were in Georgia as part of a Russian Federation contribution (8) The reaction to Georgia's President Mikhail Saakashvili massive military offensive against South Ossetia was one of condemnation as stupid blunder. Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner called Saakashvili’s military attack on South Ossetia a blunder and "there were major errors of judgment on the part of the Georgians” (9).
The need to understand what the Community is about… John McCormick (2007) described the differences between Europeanism and Americanism in his chapter on "The Meaning of Europe." While McCormick states that defining "Europe" as "not America" might be easy and a quick way for European independent thought and action, but the real attention needs to be paid to what the European Union is and represents. Often, there is much less certainty to what the EU actually represents and what its global significance really is (10). Well, we can now know, especially after the Russia-Georgia conflict.
"In international relations, Europeanism represents the post-modern values of peace, multilateralism, internationalism, soft power, and civilian means for dealing with conflict" (11).
It is well known that common foreign and security policy, is an area that is problematic in terms of coherence and coordination, the current crisis emphasizes the persist need for Eastern European nations to grow up a bit as European Union members. A common position might suffer from the know Atlanticist - independent European divide and no doubt that Europe's child Member States are going to give grown-up Member States trouble (12). It is militant Atlanticist, East European Member States, like Poland and the Baltics, that want to hinder the development of a common position so that the pundits can say "the EU is a failure" and to keep "American leadership" going over this crisis.
In the desire to develop common foreign and security policy, according to Bretheton and Vogler (2006) "reflect enduring themes that have contribute to the constructions of the Union as a values-based actor - commitment to multilateralism…through the United Nations, and promotion of externally of the values …embraced internally" (13). One of the stated goals of the European Security Strategy is to promote and international order based on effective multilateralism is the core of EU activities and a commitment to multilateralism is also aimed at building a secure neighborhood (14).
EU-Russian cooperation The European Commission's External Affairs website states that the EU and Russia "are very different places in 2008 from when they concluded the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement in 1997." This agreement had several objectives for the partnership, political dialog, economic, energy, social, cultural cooperation, gradual integration of Russia into a wider cooperation in Europe (15).
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 The “four common spaces” between the EU and Russia:

At the St. Petersburg Summit in May 2003, the EU and Russia agreed to reinforce their cooperation by creating in the long term four ‘common spaces’ in the framework of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement and on the basis of common values and shared interests. These common spaces are as follows :

1. The Common Economic Space, covering economic issues and the environment ;
2. The Common Space of Freedom, Security and Justice;
3. The Common Space of External Security, including crisis management and non-proliferation;
4. The Common Space of Research and Education, Including cultural aspects.


http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/russia/common_spaces/index_en.htm
The time on this agreement is ten years and it is up for renewal. Well, the usual suspects in Britain, chief among them is Secretary David Miliband, who gave a rather one-sided demonization of Russia’s actions to save the people of South Ossetia. Ignoring the real causes of the conflict, the Georgian military to regard “constitutional control” over South Ossetia. In early September, the agreement negotiation for the new partnership agreement, which was in the process of negotiation before the conflict, will be discussed by ministers (16). A sane and more rational voice still comes from the German Foreign minister, Frank Walter Steineier, who stated again that it is unproductive to point the finger at Russia:
"But we should ... assume realistically that, if the EU really wants to play a stronger role in the region, if the EU wants to help stabilize this crisis-shaken region, it must keep open the channels of communication to Tbilisi and to Moscow" (17).
The most cool head that is being heard in some quarters is Luxembourg's Foreign Minister Jean Asselborn:
"As the European Union, we must stick to the partnership with Russia, even after these recent events which of course do not please us. We need to enhance this partnership so that one day we won't have these situations any more" (18).
The last thing we need in Europe is for the European Union to reduce its ties to Russia because of this conflict. In fact, the European Union needs to fully engage all parties – and Russia plays an important part of the equation. To give in to emotional calls to sever ties with Russia out of purely emotional bending – when it was Georgia that actually stated this conflict – will even set back a resolution to this conflict. This is obviously counterproductive and will further antagonize Russia and ruin the European Union’s credibility to honestly mediate conflicts in the future.
[ For pages that detail the crafting of the European Community's Common Foreign and Security Policy and Neighborhood Policy - see the links below.]
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The usual militant Atlanticist suspects crawl out of the woodwork… What should also be noted from Saakashvili attack on South Ossetia, which killed peacekeepers and thousands of civilians, are those European leaders coming out to bash Russia. These are the usual militant Atlanticists, the defenders of American hegemony and “NATO uber alles” over Europe. This not only includes the usual suspects in especially Poland, but the British leaders. Yes, the Washington, London, Warsaw Axis is out in full force, attempting to get their long desired wish of walling off Russia from positive and productive relations with the European Union.
Leading the often belligerent, militant Atlanticist camp in Eastern Europe now if Polish President, Lech Kaczynski (more on him later), who has even chided France and Germany in the some times “big power hegemony” complaint. Now, according to Kaczynski the two “EU giants” and “taking the lead without considering the views of East European member” that were captive of the Soviets. But – Kaczynski’s whining doesn’t stop there, nope, he stated that the “common policy is laughable” and the (19).
There are two things missing in this childish and short-sited in Kaczynski’s whining. The first is that this is not the Soviet Union, but the Russian Federation. Second – Kaczynski needs to recall both the history of the European Coal and Steel Community and the spirit of the whole European project and the Schuman Declaration.
But – Kaczynski’s whining doesn’t stop there, nope, he stated that the “common policy is laughable” and the “real decisions are being made in Berlin and Paris.” Well, dear President Kaczynski, thank God they are, and you are probably more concerned with American missiles than to know that France holds the EU presidency and that the two original powers of the ECSC leading things is a positive thing. What kind of policy does Kaczynski want to “punish Russia” for stopping violence in South Ossetia?
First of all, Prime Minister Donald Tusk, about the only rational leader in Eastern Europe when it comes to Russia, saying he did not want to Poland “to become the EU member with the worst relationship with Russia.” (20). Well, giving yourself and Europe up for hostage to American missiles is really not fostering good relations between the Union and Russia, now is it?!
Kaczynski telephoned the "freedom-loving" Saakashvili to offer him "solidarity" and will travel to visit to Tbilisi. When George Bush "pledged" to "rally the free world in the defense of a free Georgia," the muck-raking Polish president, along with Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, and the leaders of EU members Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia - appeared before a rally in Tbilisi. Kaczynski conduct did not help the European Union's cause any:
"We are here to take up the fight. For the first time in quite a while, our neighbors have shown the face which we have known for hundreds of years. These neighbors feel that the nations around them should be subservient to them. We say no!" (21).
Kaczynski, please stay in Warsaw and shut up!
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An important question from Ovidiu Nahoi at the Adevarul in Romania after stating a strong Europe is needed.

"This time, a dynamic European presidency, as the French is, could intervene relatively quickly in the conflict area and propose a peace plan. A contestable one, it’s true, but better than nothing. What would have happened if other country would have been the Union’s president?"

What if Poland was the EU president?
Well, that would be pridictble, and we can thank God that it's not...That's like letting a your children run your household. Things would get ugly quick, and would not be in the best interests of the Union. We DO need to think about this in relation to the Lisbon Treaty!
Well, the other Atlanticist muck-raker is British Foreign Secretary David Miliband, who “got a chill down his spine” to see tanks rolling “parts of a sovereign country.” Also, “that is simply not the way in which international relations can be run in the 21st century." No, Mr. Miliband, its not, but, then, neither is attempting to settle a “separatist-border problem” by attacking the “separatist” city with full force of the Georgia military, resulting in the deaths of thousands of civilians (22).
Oh, and did I fail to mention the death of 15 Russian peacekeepers, huh? Notice a pattern here? America’s friends and lovers are out in full force, no doubt with tacit support of the neoconservatives in the White House, insuring the “NATO uber alles in Europe is healthy and strong,” and, “win a permanent role” for Washington’s advocates against the European Union superpower. Neat hey?!
The European Union’s finest hour (?)!
“Now it is Europe's hour. The French president had discussions in the Kremlin. At the end of the week Chancellor Angela Merkel will meet the Russian president in Sochi on the Black Sea, just a few hours' drive from the conflict zone. France and Germany are well advised to ignore the voices of Poland and the three small Baltic States in these discussions. They are threatening Russia and thus totally misjudge their possibilities. They are a hindrance for a consistent European foreign policy” (23).
Miodrag Soric at DW-RADIO had it right and we can thank the Good God above for giving European leaders of France and Germany the vision toward world peace, and especially with Russia, despite Kaczynski, who really needs to learn the history and intentions of the Community. A real European leaders (one not obsessed with pleasing Washington), would not only cheer France and Germany, but offer their help, and refuse to place American missiles in their country for the sake of the Community.
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 The Six Points of the European Union-sponsored "Sarkozy Plan" (24):
(1) Not to resort to force;

(2) To end hostilities definitively;

(3) To provide free access for humanitarian aid;

(4) Georgian military forces will have to withdraw to their usual bases;

(5) Russian military forces will have to withdraw to the lines held prior to the outbreak of hostilities. Pending an international mechanism, Russian peace-keeping forces will implement additional security measures;

(6) Opening of international talks on the security and stability arrangements in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
Divided European Union? Despite the work the European Union, especially the French Presidency to meet the goal of securing the peace, the European Union’s efforts were still described as “divided” by some observers. The Christian Science Monitor was not only railing about the “divided EU,” but highly annoyed that the EU didn’t side with Georgia and America, which it called the “Partly Free” rated country a “democracy” and cried that “the West must stand together,” (25) as if this is 1968 (…and sorry Christian Science Monitor, but the requirement for responsible behavior fell on Saakashvili, not Russia).
The European Union took the best path, Poland and the three Baltic nations did not, choosing not to engage in pointing fingers of blame. This is not what the Community is supposed to be about and it is wrong to use the Community as a tool to get back at Russia. Both Germany and France took pains to ignore that usual militant Atlanticists, who are now calling on EU sanctions against Russia. As a result of the European Union’s courageous and positive stance, the conflict was able to come to a close. This is truly a triumph of European diplomacy and Europe’s finest hour.
Winning the peace and restoring positive and productive relations between the European Union and Russia will not only require handling the Polish, but require an ability to be firm, but not present the antagonizes of the Polish. It has been suggested that Angela Merkel be out in front. Germany has a special, working relationship with Russia, especially with regard to energy. Merkel has encouraged Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to pressure diplomacy and has avoided blame for the conflict. A sticking point is the absolute “territorial integrity of Georgia” (26).
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Proposals from the EU on what else to do:

Human Rights Watch has called upon the EU to undertake a peacekeeping mission, and this signals the faith some in the international community place on the EU:
"We'd like the EU to take steps to provide protection to all civilians who are in need of it, to protect them from incursions by armed militias or the kind of things that can happen at checkpoints," Rachel Denber of Human Rights Watch told Reuters.


EU foreign ministers agreed to send peacekeepers and Alexander Stubb said of Russian accptence and the OSCE playing a part:
"I'm convinced at the end of the day we will find an international peacekeeping [force] in the region, with the EU at its heart," he said.


Germany has proposed a EU-Georgia neighbours' conference that would fit into the EU's Neighborhood policy:
"The conference would take place in the framework of the EU's neighborhood policy, aimed at strengthening ties with the bloc's neighbours and which already includes Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia" a spokesman for Chancellor Angela Merkel's office said.
"The German government's representative for Russian affairs, Andreas Schockenhoff, said that neither the EU nor Germany would take sides in the conflict. A solution required both sides reaching an agreement. 'That is very difficult at the moment and will take a while. At the moment the hate and mutual mistrust is so great that we must use every chance to get the two conflicting sides to the negotiating table" (27).
Good and the German Foreign minister with equally positive statements, the negotiations for the European Union should now rest with Germany. German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier has called for, like his Luxembourg colleague Foreign Minister Asselborn, to keep the channels of communication open with Russia. "It remains the case that a levelheaded policy is the one that most helps people in the region," he said, and that calls to keep the channels open with a "level headed policy" between Moscow and Tbilisi are the only realistic way for the European Union to be a key player in the peace process (28). To maintain its finest hour, there European Union will have to avoid the divisive tendencies and proclivities of the militant Atlanticists, especially in Poland.
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We should conclude Since "world peace cannot be safeguarded without the making of creative efforts proportionate to the dangers which threaten it" the Community needs to break the Cold War thinking-trap with regard to Russia, work to bring real democracy to Georgia, and consider the independence aspirations of "break aways" like South Ossetia. Also, there needs to be some security guarantees for these "break aways" in that they should not fear attack from anyone else, including "democratic" Georgia. Also - the Community must never develop a hostile relationship with Russia, otherwise, the seeking of lasting peace will be substantially hindered and bring disrepute on the EU's conflict resolution policies and processes. A good summary of the serious mistake it would be if the European Community sided with Georgia and its American allies:
"Cold War-style brinkmanship will not make Russia's neighbours safer. It will only reinforce the Kremlin's view that small states are pawns in a strategic game. The best guarantee of security and peace in Europe since the end of the Cold War has been economic integration, achieved through the EU. It is Brussels, not Washington, that stands the best chance of persuading Moscow to change its ways" (29).
The first, and most obvious, is to avoid sanctions or any other punitive actions against Russia! The Union should use this crisis to both reach out to Russia and use the crisis as a teaching tool for New Europe. The ministers' meeting in early September MUST not be used by the Eastern European countries to pout about "Sovietization," nor should it be a one-sided Russian bashing session by David Miliband and other militant Atlanticists. There appears to have been NO alternative view of presented either to the foreign ministers on August 14, and to the European Parliament when it entertained the Georgia Foreign Minister. Let's hope that cooler head prevail, like Frank Walter Steineier and Jean Asselborn.
"The creation of the European Union has been central to this development. It has transformed the relations between our states, and the lives of our citizens. European countries are committed to dealing peacefully with disputes and to co-operating through common institutions. Over this period, the progressive spread of the rule of law and democracy has seen authoritarian regimes change into secure, stable and dynamic democracies. Successive enlargements are making a reality of the vision of a united and peaceful continent" (30).
The European Union should not start keeping an enemies list against any nation or group of nations! The European Security Strategy (ESS) makes mention of Russia several times, in the Russia's cooperation in especially the Balkans was productive. Cross pillar cooperation is required with Russia to address threats from weapons of mass destruction and organized crime (31). According to the ESS, "[W]e should continue to work for closer relations with Russia, a major factor in our security and prosperity. Respect for common values will reinforce progress towards a strategic partnership" (32).
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The Union must be prepared for how to deal with one or more Member States taking sides in a conflict! This crisis could as a teaching model for East European leaders, especially in the Baltic countries and Poland, that punitive policies against Russia and attempts to "ex-post facto" punish Russia for injustices of the Sovietization period are contrary to European values. European sanctions are not used to punish, but to get a nation or other entity to change its behavior. The East European nations need to be taught the European way of peace and that "world peace will require creative efforts to maintain, " to paraphrase the Schuman Declaration. The Union has to resort to some treating some of its Member States as parties to the conflict, or partly parties to a conflict, when they clearly demonstrate they are taking sides in a conflict and play advocate for one side or the other. Above all, the Union must remember and remain loyal its purposes, conflict resolution policies, and above all its history and founding purposes - and remind some Member States in mainly East Europe and Britain of them!

Third, it is clear that Georgia is not a genuine democracy in a fashion that we would regard as a "democratic" and needs the Union's help in becoming a acceptable democracy! Georgia has had a recent past of intolerance toward the freedom of the press and police brutality toward opposition protests. The European Union has had "rule of law" type police missions, including in Palestine, where police training also includes respect for human rights and individual liberty. It is clear that Georgia could benefit from an EU police mission that help develop respect for democratic policing principles, and an EU mission should include a "rule of law" component (33). Train Georgia's police in democratic policing principles and the rule of law concepts!

"Common policies" and "joint actions" must best represent the Community's values and "Common positions" must, therefore, be crafted for the best interests on the image of the Community, its values and founding purposes, even if some Member States that have taken sides in a conflict object to them! "Joint actions" should consist of those Member States, or Member State, that agree with them, and "joint actions" must best reflect Community values and founding concepts, and given the East European nations' desire for vengence against Russia, "common positions" resulting in "joint actions" may be hard to get. The last thing we need in Europe is for the European Union to reduce its ties to Russia because of this conflict and presents the appearance that it has "chosen a side." In fact, the European Union needs to fully engage all parties - and Russia plays an important part of the equation. To give in to emotional calls to sever ties with Russia out of purely emotional bending - when it was Georgia that actually stated this conflict - will even set back a resolution to this conflict. This is obviously counterproductive and will further antagonize Russia.
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Endnotes
1. From: Brent, Nelsen F., and Alexander C-G. Stubb. Eds. 1998. "The European Union: Readings of the Theory and Practice European Integration." : Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 13-14.
2. Human Rights' Watch. 2008. "Q & A: Violence in South Ossetia." August 15. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2008/08/08/georgi19577.htm
3. Ibid.
4. Freedom House. 2007. Georgia (2007) Country Reports. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=251&country=7181&year=2007
5. The Associated Press. 2007. "Tens of thousands rally in Tbilisi as pressure mounts on Georgian. November 2.
6. Matthew Collin . 2007. Ban on Georgian TV station lifted. 6 December. BBC News. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7131074.stm]; Reuters. 2008. "Georgia's Imedi TV is back on air, but no news." May 5. [http://www.reuters.com/article/mediaNews/idUSANT54539020080505]; Human Rights Watch. 2007. "Georgia: Riot Police Violently Disperse Peaceful Protesters: Government Shuts TV Stations, Then Declares Emergency Rule" November 8. [http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/11/08/georgi17267.htm].
7. Imedinews. 2007. "TV Company Imedi temporarily stops broadcasting." December 25. [http://imedinews.ge/en/news_read/76731/]
8. Human Rights Watch, 15 August 2008; George Friedman. 2008. "Russo-Georgian War and Balance of Power" Stratfor. August 13. [http://www.realclearworld.com/articles/2008/08/russogeorgian_war_and_balance.html]; Patrick Buchanan. 2008. "Blowback From Bear-Baiting." August 15. [www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=28053].
9. Reuters. 2008. "France's Kouchner says Georgia made 'major errors.'" August 16. [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/LG458625.htm].
10. John McCormick. 2007. The European Superpower. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
11. Ibid, 167.
12. Charlorre Bretherton and John Vogler. 2002. The European Union as a Global Actor. New York, NY: Routledge.
13. Ibid, 165.
14. Council of the European Union. 2003. "A Secure Europe in a Better World. European Security Strategy." December. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf
15. OJ L 327, 28.11.1997. "Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of one part, and the Russian Federation." [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:21997A1128(01):EN:NOT]
16. EUbusiness. 2008. "EU ministers to assess Russian ties next month. Kouchner." 14 August. [http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1218635224.31]
17. The Associated Press. 2008. "German FM: Keep talking with Russia." August 14. [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/08/14/europe/EU-Germany-Russia-Georgia.php]
18. Deutsche Welle. 2008. "EU Minister Calls for Closer Russia Ties After Caucasus War." August 8. [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3567398,00.html]
19. The Associated Press. 2008. "Polish president criticizes France, Germany." August 16. [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/08/16/europe/EU-Poland-Georgia.php].
20. Ibid; Spiegel Online International. 2008. "BLAME GAME? EU Looks for Common Response on Russia." August 13. [http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,571858,00.html]
21. Spiegel Online International 13 August 2008.
22. Ibid; Human Rights Watch, 15 August 2008.
23. Miodrag Soric. 2008. Europe Needs Caution to Calm Georgian Conflict. August 12. Deutsche Welle. [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3558378,00.html].
24. Council of the European Union. General Affairs and External Relations - PRESS RELEASE Extraordinary meeting - Brussels, 13 August 2008 - [http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/gena/102338.pdf]; Council Conclusions on the situation in Georgia - Brussels, 13 August 2008 -Council of the European Union. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/gena/102315.pdf
25. Christian Science Monitor. 2008. Europe's (dis)unity over Russia. August 15. [http://www.csmonitor.com]
26. Spiegel Online International. 2008. Merkel to Urge Medvedev to Embrace Diplomacy. 15 August. [http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,572316,00.html]; Euractiv. Merkel asked to take lead in reshaping East-West relations." 22 August. [http://www.euractiv.com/en/opinion/merkel-asked-take-lead-reshaping-east-west-relations/].
27. Spiegel Online International 15 August 2008.
28. See note 17.
29. The Guardian. 2008. "Controlling the new Russia requires new thinking." 17 August. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/aug/17/russia.georgia].
30. A Secure Europe in a Better World. Council of the European Union. December 2003. [http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf]
31. Ibid.
32. Ibid, 7.
33. European Union at the United Nations. 2005. "EU Council establishes Police Mission in Palestinian Territories." November 14. [http://www.europa-eu-un.org/articles/en/article_5290_en.htm].
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Also see other webpages, articles and Community documents:
[On Common Foreign and Security Policy and Neighborhood Policy]
The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) -Council site
Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP) - Commission website
European Neighborhood Policy form the Commission's website
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Communication from the Commission to the Council and to the European Parliament on the general approach to enable ENP partner countries to participate in Community agencies and Community programmes. Brussels, 4.12.2006 - COM(2006) 724 final http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/pdf/com06_724_en.pdf
Communication from the Commission - A strategy on the external dimension of the area of freedom, security and justice. Brussels, 12.10.2005 - COM(2005) 491 final http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2005:0491:FIN:EN:PDF
European Commission -Russia [http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/Russia/index_en.htm] accessed on August 21,
2008 United Nations' Observer Mission in Georgia - http://www.unomig.org/background/background/
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